What are the various basic concepts of Computer which every have to know ?

Data:- A data is an unprocessed form of information that is ambiguous. Suppose you have written your nickname let suppose "William" on paper, and your dear friend read "William" as someplace name. It means you and your friend are thinking about two different things. Because only "William" word not giving clarity. So this is an example of data, and if you write "My name is William," then it provides precise information that your name is William.

Volatile Memory:- In Computers, memory is physical media where data will store and from where we can retrieve data. A Storage media can retain data in their storage space when the power is connected with it and when power discontinues, data will be lost. This type of storage media is called volatile memory.RAM (Random Access Memory), which is also known as the main memory, is an example of volatile memory. There are two main types of RAM: SRAM(Static RAM) and DRAM(Dynamic RAM).

Non-volatile memory:- Unlike volatile memory, the non-volatile memory will save your data even if the power is turned off.ROM(Read Only Memory), Hard Disk Drive, Flash Memory is the example of no-volatile memory. In this type of memory, you can retrieve your data after you restart the computer, but in volatile memory, you cannot retrieve saved data after restarting the system.

Operating System:- An Operating System is an interface between the computer user and computer hardware. An Operating System is an example of System Software.Operating System functions are :- file management,memory management,handling Input/Output devices(Speaker,Printer,Plotter,Speaker,Mouse, Keyboard,Joystick etc).Various popular are Windows, Linux, Unix, Mac OS, etc.

Network:- A network or computer network is a group of two or more computer systems that connected for communication and resource sharing. Resources can be printer, files, etc. Like when two or more person talks with each other, this is a network in which air becomes medium for communication. Similarly, two or more computers will connect by some medium.A medium can be a cable(Wire) or wireless medium like Bluetooth.

WWW(World Wide Web):- World Wide Web which is also known as web, is a collection of web pages. To understand this you can compare WWW with your notebook pages. In your notebook, various pages exist which is used by you to write notes using a pen/pencil. Similarly, WWW is the collection of web pages that are created by using HTML language.

Internet:- Internet means a network of networks.For example, when two person share file between mobiles or between computer and mobile is a network of two devices and when these two devices connect with another device to share data and these two devices also share data among them, then, the internet is created.

Domain:- Domain or Domain name simply a name given to your website. Like www.amazon.com is a domain name. By typing this, you can open the Amazon website. In technical terms, a domain name is a sequence of letters and/or numbers/hyphens separated by period/dot(“.”). The domain is divided into various categories like - Top-level domain,second-level domain, third level, and subdomain. You can get a domain name for your website free of cost or by providing some money to registrars.

IP Address:- IP stands for Internet Protocol. An IP address is an address that is given to the nodes(computer, servers, and various devices used in the network) on the network. In networks, the devices which are connected to share data are known as nodes. An IP address is a numerical version of the domain name. It means when we write our favorite website name in address bar its name converted into IP address to locate your data because the computer knows only binary data. Your entered domain name or website name first converted into IP address, then you will get the resource.

Binary Data:- A binary data is a combination of two digits. Two digits are 0 and 1.

Cloud Computing:- Cloud Computing means to give resources on-demand remotely. By using this technology, we can access the various resources over the internet. Suppose you have a 15GB, but in your computer system have only 10GB free space, and in this scenario, you can store your data on the internet on some server, and you can access your information when you need it. This is the one benefit of cloud computing.

BlockChain:- BlockChain is a ledger that stores list of records known as blocks on different connected systems so that no one can hack and cheat the system to uncover data. Cryptography is one of the biggest assets in blockchain technology.

Cryptography:- Cryptography is a technique in computer word which is used to convert human-readable data into some other format.So that no one can read your information. For example, you say “hello” to your dear friend, and it gives you a reply maybe “Hi,” and if you changed the spellings of “hello” to “Yellow”,  after that, if you say “Yellow” then your dear friend will not understand your feelings. This is the basic concept behind cryptography.

SEO:- SEO is an acronym for Search Engine Optimization. This is the technique that is used on the internet to increase the number of visitors on websites through organic search engine results. Organic Search Engine results mean it shows you different effects according to your words, which you type in the browser window, which you want to search. It is a core part of digital marketing.

Browser:- A Browser or Web Browser is application software that provides requesting information on your computer system, which is available on the internet in the form of web pages.If required information is not available on the Internet it gives you the error message.Examples of Browsers are:- Mozilla, Google Chrome,Safari,Internet Explorer, Opera etc.

Search Engine:- A Search Engine is a tool that is available on the internet that finds data for the internet user according to the user request.When you open Browser on the computer system you will see a search engine according to your Browser settings, there you can type the topic name which you want to see on the internet.Examples of search engines are:- Yahoo, Bing, Ask.com, Google, Baidu, DuckDuckGo, Excite, etc.

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