Vedic Period (1500-1000)BC
Types of States in Vedic Period From the literature of this time, we have concerns about 8 types of states, which are as follows:
1. Samrajya - This is the first empire but it was not like the empire of modern times. At this time it was the duty of the state to merge other states into its own state and run them through state legislation.
2. Bhojya-This was the second state. It is made up of Bhuj and Rajya. Which means the state surrounded by the natural boundaries of the earth. The way India was surrounded by the Himalayan mountains in the north and the sea in the south was Bhuj.
3. Vaishajya-There was no king in this state. The whole people used to rule the state together, at this time the biggest flaw of the state was that such a rule could not be on a large territory.
4. Maharajya- In this time there were small states. Many other powerful states were able to win by attacking easily on these small states, so it is right for these small states to be transformed into Maharajya, in this it is good for all.
5. Aadhipatyamya- At this time, the rule of the state was under Pati and Adhipati. The Pati and the Adhipati are the names of the state officials. The state that ran from their property was called the Aadhipatya state government.
6. Samantpryayi- The rule of this type of state was under the feudal lords. This rule is named after the feudal 'Mandlik kings' under whose rule it was.
7. Prmeshhthya Rajya- This kingdom is based on God. In this state, people considered God as their king. He believed that there should be a feudal state or some other state, if he would choose his kingdom as paramount state paramount, then there would be no fault in it.
8. Swarajya- This state was a good state in the Vedic period. Today we use this Swarajya but it is Swarajya and not Swaraj today.
Political Condition of Vedic Period
Following are the political conditions of Vedic period:
a. Political Organization- The smallest unit of a political organization was a Kul or Grah (family), whose head was called the Kulpati (patriarch), a village was formed out of several Kuls , whose head was called Gramini and a Vish consisting of several villages was formed.
Whose head was called Vishpati, people would be made up of these things and a prosperous state was formed by meeting many Jans. The head of the people was the Gopa and the head of the state was the king.
b. Status of a King- At this time, the position of the King was such that the king ruled the entire kingdom through his officers. The people of that time considered the King to be the paramount and obeyed every order of the King sincerely. King did not have the right to take donations from others. The King was responsible for the sins and faults of his people.
c. Duties of a King- The king had an important role to run the kingdom. The king's first duty was to protect his people from external and internal invasions and to give them proper justice. there were murders etc. and in other attacks, like any other state had come, used to attack. It was also a task to maintain peace in his kingdom. The King also had to keep all his ministers, generals and all other officers happy.
d. Law and Justice System- There was no written law in this time, nor was there any court like nowadays. At that time, what the King used to say was law. The King listened attentively to the atrocities inflicted on his people and used to give them proper justice by his officers.
e. Sabha & Samiti- At that time, two types of institutions were formed to assist the King in governance related work. One of which is the name of the assembly(Sabha) and the name of the other is the committee(Samiti). The Sabha was a small unit headed by the chairman (Sabhapati) while the Samiti was the big unit headed by the husband (Pati). The king was their head, according to which both these institutions used to run the state.
Social Condition of Vedic Period
Following are the Social Conditions of Vedic Period:
a. Family Status- In this time there used to be joint family. Whose father used to be the head. The entire family members faithfully obeyed the father's command. The family life of this time was very good compared to today. Members of the entire family lived together.
b. Marriage- Marriage was very compulsory for girls in this time because in the Vedas it is said that an unmarried girl cannot attain heaven whatever her penance, that is, she will go to hell after death.
Before the wedding, the bride and groom were not allowed to meet each other. But the practice of Swayamvara was prevalent among the kings. The girl was married as per the father's command and also the son's. It was customary to give a lot of gifts as a gift to the daughter.
c. Women’s Condition- The condition of the girls was quite good during this time. For girls, her husband was like the gods. At this time, girls had all kinds of freedom. She was also allowed to go to the court like the others and there she could also express her views and problems.
d. Caste System-In this period, caste was divided into four parts. Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Shudras. At this time, the Brahmin caste had great importance in the entire state and court of the king.
The people of the caste used to work in the army. So they also had a lot of importance. Vaishyas used to do small things like: - Carpenter, Goldsmith, Blacksmith etc. Hence their importance was work.
But Shudra people used to clean the dirt of villages, raise cow dung etc. Because of which he had no importance in the state. He was considered untouchable and no one even spoke directly to him. Nobody used to sit and eat food with them.
e. Food- At that time, Aryans used to use a lot of dishes in their food. Their food was mainly four types. Bhakshya, Bhojya, Chestha, and Leha. These were the use of wheat, barley and rice in their food.
f. Clothes & Ornaments- Residents of that time weaved cotton, silk, golden and colorful clothes. Male and female wore two clothes. While the Brahmins wore a garment. Silk clothes were used in sacred works.
At that time, both men and women wore jewelry. Elephants were the practice of decorating horses with jewelry. It was customary to wear ornaments on the entire body.
g. Games & Amusements- At that time, many means of entertainment were available to enjoy life. Such as: -chess, Song, Dance, Drama, Exercise, Yoga etc.
Economical Condition of Vedic Period
Following are the Economical Conditions of Vedic Period:
The economic condition of the Aryans was very good at that time. They considered money as scum of the hand. And used to make money to please God. In this time, many means of earning money were suitable such as: Business, Trade and Education.
In business, they used to do animal husbandry and agriculture. At that time there were large fields of grass for animal husbandry.
Where animals used to feed, there was no restriction of any kind. Many kinds of work were done from animals. They used to make many marks on the animals to identify them.
In agriculture, help was taken from oxen and buffalo. Manure was made from animal dung. A good crop was grown by putting it in the fields. Water was taken from lakes, ponds, rivers, canals and wells for irrigation.
Trade was also done in many ways. Both water and land resources were used for trade. Dairy and agricultural products were mainly used for trade.
Dairy products include milk, curd butter etc. And agriculture products include wheat, gram, rice, mustard etc. Used to be. Trade was also done by exchanging goods.
At that time, children were taught in three forms of mental, physical and verbal.
Gurukuls used to get education.
In mental education, children were given many types of brain games to play like Shantaraj.
In physical education, he was taught to run yoga, exercise and many different types of Astra.
He was memorized and heard from many texts and verses in Moral Education.
Religious Condition of Vedic Period
Following are the Religious Conditions of Vedic Period:
Residents of this period have powers of nature such as sun, air, fire, Varuna, moon, river and trees etc. were worshiped as gods. The Aryans believed that by making the gods happy, we get wealth and children.
Indra and fire gods were specially worshiped. In addition, people believed that there is a great power and which is the most powerful of them. They did not worship their gods by making temples, but in open fields under the sky and on the rivers
. He believed that after death, the human body is destroyed, but the soul never dies. In order to please Gods, they sacrificed animals in the yagya. And as a gift to the food, they were offered on the banks of the river or under the trees.